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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 57-62

Glycemic Status During Pregnancy in Gestational Diabetic & Non-Gestational Diabetic Women & its Effect on Maternal & Fetal Outcome

1 Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, Pune - 411 041, Maharashtra, India
2 Professor, Department of Endocrinology and Biochemistry, KEM Hospital Pune - 411 011, Maharashtra, India
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences, Loni - 413 736, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
A P Sawant
Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, Pune - 411 041, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2277-4696.159141

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Aims & Objectives: 1.To study the time course of plasma glucose, in gestational diabetic and normal pregnant women. 2.To compare maternal outcome and fetal outcome in gestational diabetic and normal pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Five hundred pregnant individuals visiting the Antenatal Clinic of Rural Medical College, Loni in either half of the gestation were screened and gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria. Results: The scope of diabetes and pregnancy encompasses not only diabetics marching through pregnancy but also, any form of abnormal glucose tolerance developing during gestation, termed as gestational diabetes, abnormal glucose tolerance of any etiology recognized or unrecognized starting before pregnancy or revealed during pregnancy, is associated with a high risk of a poor maternal and fetal outcomes. In our study we found a significantly higher incidence of caesarean section in-patients with GDM when compared with the normal group (67% versus 25%, P <0.001). In GDM cases, we observed fetal macrosomia, high birth weight etc. Naturally these are the factors, which add to the pre-existing unfavourable maternal factors affecting the process of labour adversely. We observed a significant difference in the incidence of preterm labour in between the GDM and non-GDM groups (22% Vs 13%, p<0.05). These individuals underwent a process of preterm labour at a gestational age of 32+3 weeks. Hyperglycemia and polyhydramnios are held responsible for preterm labour. The incidence rate of PIH was more in subjects with GDM as compared to the other group. However this difference failed to prove statistically significant at 5% level of significance. Though we did not get a significant difference in occurrence of PIH in between the GDM and non-GDM groups, we do agree with the comment that hyperglycemia earlier in the pregnancy is associated with greater incidence of PIH as three of the four cases who were diagnosed to have GDM in first half of pregnancy showed a presence of PIH. The present study revealed no association between Polyhydramnios and GDM. We found 16.65% incidence of polyhydramnios in GDM and 4.35% in non-GDM women. In our study maternal hyperglycemia was present in all cases of polyhydramnios so that osmotic imbalance could be involved in the pathogenesis of polyhydramniosis. Conclusion: Diagnosis of gestational diabetes and subsequent treatment to attain normoglycemia will definitely lead to satisfactory maternal and /or fetal outcome.

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