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   2015| July-December  | Volume 4 | Issue 2  
    Online since December 11, 2015

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
The changing phase of prosthodontics: Nanotechnology
Anne Gopinadh, Manne Prakash, Kalluri Lohitha, Kadiyala Krishna Kishore, Anche Sampath Chowdary, J. Ravi Rakesh Dev
July-December 2015, 4(2):78-83
DOI:10.4103/2277-4696.171523  
Science is presently undergoing a great evolution, taking humanity to a new era: The era of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the field of science and technology pertaining to the creation and use of materials or devices at nanometer scale. Nanoscale is small in size, but its potential is vast. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology has numerous applications in the field of nanomedicine, nanomaterials, nanorobotics, implantology, and biotechnology. Nanomaterials in dentistry can be metals, ceramics, polymers, implant modifications, and composite materials that demonstrate novel properties when compared with conventional materials due to their nanoscale features. The present article focuses on the various applications of nanotechnology in the field of dentistry, especially prosthodontics.
  7,429 1,477 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of smile esthetics by photographic assessment of the dento-labio-gingival complex
Mundoor Manjunath Dayakar, Anna Shipilova, M Rekha
July-December 2015, 4(2):65-68
DOI:10.4103/2277-4696.171515  
Context: The esthetics of a smile is determined by various factors including symmetry, anatomy and position of teeth, periodontal visibility, and musculoskeletal relationships. Aim: This study analyzed the dento-labio-gingival esthetic components of the smile, evaluating: (a) Amount of gingiva visible during natural smile and forced smile, (b) relationship between incisal edges of maxillary anterior teeth and upper border of lower lip, (c) deviation of dental midline from facial midline to right or left side. Materials and Methods: Photographs of 127 subjects were taken by standardizing by placing patients head in Frankfurt horizontal plane and photos were cropped uniformly. Analysis of the dento-labial-gingival esthetic components of the smile, evaluating the relationship between the curve formed by the incisal edges of anterior teeth that is, incisal line and the curve of the lower lip, whether the incisal line touches the lower lip, presence of overlap of the lower lip over the incisal edges or absence of touch and also the amount of periodontal visibility during natural smile and the forced smile was done using Microsoft PowerPoint. Result: During natural smile the most frequent smile line was class 4 that is, low smile line seen in 67% of participants and class 3 for forced smile that is, average smile line seen in 44% of participants. There was a highly significant prevalence for females to have more periodontal visibility during both natural and forced smile (P < 0.001).40% of participants had maxillary incisor edges slightly apart from the lower lip and 48% of participants had maxillary incisal edges in light contact with lower lip. No significant difference was seen between the two genders (P > 0.05). 78 % of subjects showed no deviation from the midline, 19.7 % of the subjects showed the deviation of midline toward the right, and 2.4% showed deviation toward the left. Conclusion: Harmony of the dento-labial-gingival complex is essential for a pleasing smile. Evaluating the smile of each patient using photographs, as well as radiographs and clinical data assures the clinician of the possibility of deciding what needs to be carried out and what can be done to treat a gummy or an assymetrical smile according to its etiology.
  3,876 2,835 1
EDITORIAL
Cochrane systematic review protocols
Jayant N Palaskar
July-December 2015, 4(2):63-64
DOI:10.4103/2277-4696.171511  
  1,930 4,196 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Cone-beam computed tomography: A miracle for orthodontics!
Jeevan M Khatri, Gaurav Tated
July-December 2015, 4(2):89-94
DOI:10.4103/2277-4696.171532  
The branch of oral medicine and radiology has always played a role of back stage worker for the branch of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopaedics. It would have been difficult for an orthodontist to gift the bright smiles to his/her patients without the 2D and 3D black and white pictures provided by the oral radiologist. Moreover, the series of advances in the various imaging modalities are playing the role of a magician for the branch of orthodontia. The present article provides valuable information about one such miracle for the field of orthodontics-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).
  3,469 478 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of dental fluorosis in school going children of Dammam, Saudi Arabia
Soban Qadir Khan, Imran Alam Moheet, Imran Farooq, Faraz Ahmed Farooqi, Aws Saleh ArRejaie, Mohammad Hassan Abdullah Al Abbad, Abdul Khabeer
July-December 2015, 4(2):69-72
DOI:10.4103/2277-4696.171516  
Objective: Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis and its pattern in primary and permanent teeth among 6-12-year-old Pakistani school going children living in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed between June and September 2014. A total number of screened children were 496 among them 259 were males and 237 were females. World Health Organization's scale was used to examine children for dental fluorosis. Results: Prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 33% among a total number of examined children. Among the children who had dental fluorosis (n = 164), it was observed that mild and moderate level of fluorosis were prevailing in 113 (69%) children. Furthermore, a number of males who were suffering from fluorosis was more than the females. There were 97 males and 67 females found affected from dental fluorosis and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.038). Conclusion: Prevalence of dental fluorosis among Pakistani school going children was not high. However, the severity of fluorosis was alarming, mild, and a moderate level of fluorosis was observed in most of the children who were affected from fluorosis.
  2,986 828 3
REVIEW ARTICLES
Association between psychosocial disorders and oral health
Amita Aditya, Shailesh Lele
July-December 2015, 4(2):84-88
DOI:10.4103/2277-4696.171525  
It is a fact that mind and body share an intimate relationship. There are many ways in which mental and physical health impact each other. Psychosocial factors play a part in the pathogenesis of physical health, and oral health is no exception. Chronic and painful oral symptoms lead to psychosocial disorder and at the same time, some patients with psychosocial disorders experience painful oral and facial symptoms. Several investigators have concluded that psychosocial factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of an array of oral problems, ranging from poor oral hygiene to chronic pain disorders, such as temporomandibular joint disorders, burning mouth syndrome, and atypical pain. This review aims at the in-depth analysis of the correlation between psychosocial disorders and various oral symptoms.
  3,368 427 1
CASE REPORTS
Erupted complex composite odontoma: Report of two atypical cases
Preeti Tomar Bhattacharya, Soumyabrata Sarkar, Tanya Khaitan, Arpita Kabiraj
July-December 2015, 4(2):99-102
DOI:10.4103/2277-4696.171546  
Odontomas are nonaggressive, hamartomatous developmental malformations of odontogenic origin. They are considered one of the most common odontogenic lesions composed by diverse dental tissues. They may interfere with the eruption of an associated tooth and are more prevalent in the posterior mandible. The eruption of a complex odontoma into the oral cavity is rare. Here, we report such two rare cases of gigantic erupted complex composite odontomas.
  3,285 209 -
Customizing guidance flange prosthesis for management of segmental mandibulectomy
Bhushan Satish Gaikwad, Mayura Sandip Badgujar
July-December 2015, 4(2):103-106
DOI:10.4103/2277-4696.171547  
Treatment of benign and malignant tumors may involve surgical resection of the mandible, which may be segmental or hemisectioned. The prosthetic rehabilitation of resected mandible becomes difficult when preprosthetic planning is not considered. Preprosthetic plastic surgery and/or implant assisted overdenture may enhance the prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous patients who have undergone resection of the mandible. Due to medical conditions, unwillingness for additional surgery or economical restraints, the treatment is limited to guidance flange prosthesis. The guidance flange prosthesis helps in directing the deviating mandible to improve form and function. This case report describes a procedure for fabricating customized guiding flange prosthesis to rehabilitate edentulous segmental mandibulectomy.
  2,976 412 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of shear bond strength of conventional glass ionomer cements bonded to mineral trioxide aggregate: An in vitro study
Bandu Devrao Napte, Srinidhi Surya Raghavendra
July-December 2015, 4(2):73-77
DOI:10.4103/2277-4696.171519  
Introduction: This study measured the shear bond strength of conventional glass ionomer cements (GICs) (Xtra Fil and Fuji IX) bonded to white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA, Angelus) that had been allowed to set for two different time intervals. Materials and Methods: Sixty WMTA specimens were prepared; half were stored for 45 min and the remaining 30 specimens were stored for 72 h at 37°C and 100% humidity. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups of 15 specimens, and each GIC was layered on each of the two WMTA preparations. The GIC-WMTA shear bond strengths were measured and were compared by using one-way analysis of variance. Results: The shear bond strengths with the 45-min and 72-h WMTAs were 7.23 and 7.79 megapascal (MPa), respectively, for Xtra Fil and 7.87 and 8.12 MPa, respectively, for Fuji IX. The GIC-WMTA bond strength was not different between GIC applications to WMTA that had set for 45 min versus 72 h (P > 0.05). Conclusion: GICs might be used over MTA after the MTA has set for 45 min to allow single-visit direct pulp cap procedures.
  2,745 340 -
CASE REPORTS
Button anchored coronally advanced flap: Perio-ortho continuum
Nitin Kaushik, Harpreet Singh Grover, Yogender Singh, Amit Bhardwaj
July-December 2015, 4(2):95-98
DOI:10.4103/2277-4696.171535  
Periodontal plastic surgical procedures aimed at the coverage of exposed root surface have evolved into routine treatment modalities. Coronally advanced flap (CAF) was the most frequently used mucogingival procedure to achieve root coverage. Gingival recession resulting in root exposure is a common problem faced by clinicians. The continuous endeavor for innovation of newer interdisciplinary treatment modalities has resulted in the use of a passive object such as the orthodontic button being used to provide the initial stabilization in cases of root coverage using a CAF. The objective of this case report is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new treatment approach which consists of CAF procedure combined with orthodontic button application for the stabilization of flap for the treatment of Miller's Class I recession defects. After the application of orthodontic buttons in the middle third of the tooth surface, a split-full-split flap was raised for tooth number 43, and the flap was sutured 3-4 mm coronal to cementoenamel junction, and the central part of flap was suspended with sutures to the orthodontic button to maximize the stabilization of the immediate postoperative flap location. Clinical parameters such as probing depth and clinical attachment level were recorded at 1 month postoperatively. Complete root coverage was achieved when evaluated from baseline to 3 months along with gain in clinical attachment level and keratinized tissue. The final esthetics, both color match and tissue contours, were highly acceptable. One-month postoperative results showed that the CAF combined with the orthodontic button for stabilization is a very effective approach even in the treatment of Miller's Class I recession defects.
  2,396 347 1
Giant basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland eroding the ramus of mandible: An unusual presentation
Kiran Khande, Rajshekhar Halli, Pushkar Gawande, Manjula Hebbale
July-December 2015, 4(2):111-114
DOI:10.4103/2277-4696.171551  
Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is an uncommon benign salivary gland epithelial tumor. BCA accounts for 1-2% of all salivary gland epithelial tumors and more than 80% of BCA's arise in the major salivary glands, mostly the parotid. It is usually firm in consistency, mobile, slow growing mass, and tends to be multiple. Due to the prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is essential. We present a giant BCA of the left parotid gland eroding the ramus of mandible in an elderly female and discuss its diagnostic work-up and surgical management.
  1,650 176 -
The unintended obturation: Thrusting bizarre in the root canals!
Shivani Mathur, Rahul Chopra
July-December 2015, 4(2):107-110
DOI:10.4103/2277-4696.171549  
A wide array of habits is found in children; of these inserting foreign objects in the oral cavity is a common practice among children. Children often tend to insert sharp objects mainly in the open carious lesions to relieve pain caused due to food lodgment. The objects sometimes break and get embedded in the root canals. Sometimes, the patients do not reveal this to parent out of fear and ultimately are diagnosed accidently by the dentists when the symptoms appear or while diagnosing some other lesion. These foreign objects may act as a possible cause of infection. Early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory in such cases to avoid further complications. Thorough case history, clinical, and radiographic examinations are essential to determine the nature, size, location of the foreign body, and the difficulty involved in its retrieval. This paper discusses series of three such case reports where the foreign objects were diagnosed, retrieved, and treatment was followed.
  1,462 179 -